Create designed experiments, analyze with regression, predict, plot, and optimize within Microsoft Excel. Quantum XL software includes a Design Wizard to assist in selecting the best design for your problem. Advanced users can use the D-Optimal design generator for best subset designs. Analyze the results with either ordinary least squares, binomial logistic regression, or nominal logistic regression. The resulting models can be plotted, predicted, and optimized all within Microsoft Excel.
Chromium which is a heavy metal component of SEO has been designated as a priority pollutant by US EPA and found to be toxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic when present at high concentration. Chromium (Cr) does not occur naturally in elemental form, only in compounds. Chromium exists in nine valence states ranging from 2 to +6; nevertheless, trivalent chromium (Cr (III)) and hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) are of major environmental significance because of their stability in the natural environment. Hexavalent chromium (chromate) compounds are highly water soluble and, therefore, can overcome the cellular permeability barrier, entering via sulfate transport pathways since it bears structural similarity with SO4. It has a high tendency to bind with oxygen, and unless it is rapidly reduced, it can oxidatively damage the DNA via the production of free radicals. It has been reported that hexavalent chromium causes lung cancer, chromate ulcer, perforation of nasal septum, and kidney damage in humans, and it is also toxic to other organisms as well. Trivalent chromium is an essential micronutrient for many microorganisms, relatively insoluble in water, and 100 times less toxic than the hexavalent form. Thus, reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) represents a potentially useful detoxification process. Therefore, prolonged exposure to high SEO concentration may cause the development of liver or kidney disease, possible damage to the bone marrow, and an increased risk of cancer[12, 13].
The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial regression model (Equation 1) containing three linear, three quadratic, and three interaction terms using the same experimental design software to derive the equation for SEO removal from contaminated soil.
Design matrix evaluation showed that there were no aliases for the two-factor interactions and the degrees of freedom (df) for the matrix are shown in Table 2. As a rule of thumb, a minimum of three lack-of-fit df and four pure error df ensure a valid lack of fit test. Fewer df tend to lead to a test that may not detect lack of fit (Design Expert 8.0.71. StatEase software).
An Agilent HPLC system 1100 series (Japan) equipped with a G1314A variable wavelength detector and G1310A Iso pump was used for the chromatographic separation. Agilent Chemstation PC software was employed for the instrumental control, data analysis, and acquisition. Separation was done using a Inertsil ODS-3v C18 column (250 mm, 4.6 mm, 5 μm). A pH meter (Jenway, 3505, UK) was employed for adjustment of pH. A sonicator (Soniclean-120T, The barton-SA, Australia) was employed. 0.45 μm membrane filters from Sartorius Stedim-Biotech GmbH (Goettingen, Germany) were employed for mobile phase filtration. Minitab-17 (Minitab, Inc., State College, PA, USA) was employed for analysis of data and experimental design .
v1.26:5/24/2022 Fix ANOVA table bugs. Fix crash issue caused by R v4.2.v1.22: Fix optimization plot issue.v1.21:Fix bugs of response values in contour and surface plots.v1.2: fix alr3 package download issue.v1.1: Automatically download and install R software after App installation. Need Origin 2020b or later version.
Formulation optimization process was carried out using a Box-Behnken design, as it requires few runs with three or four variables. Here three variables at three levels were studied using total 17 runs. Layout of the Box-Behnken design is represented in Table 2. Effect of three factors X1 (HPMC K-15), X2 (Maltodextrin) and X3 (PVA) on mechanical properties of film and percentage drug release in 30 s (Q30) in distilled water were studied by Box-Behnken design. A set of points lying at the midpoints of each edge of the multidimensional design cube as well as replicated center points were utilized to construct mathematical models and response surfaces using Design Expert® software (Version 7.0.0, Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). Derived models were validated using three checkpoint batches CHI^-CHI^.
STATGRAPHICS contains extensive capabilities for the creation and analysis of statistically designed experiments. Statgraphics functions as design of experiments software that creates designs of several types:
D-optimal designs are designs that seek to minimize the covariance matrix of the estimated coefficients in a specific statistical model. They are commonly used when the design region is constrained, or when additional runs need to be added to an undesigned experiment to improve its statistical properties. Statgraphics users typically begin by creating a set of candidate runs using a multilevel factorial design. The DOE software program then selects an optimal subset of those runs by applying either a forward selection or backward selection plus an exchange algorithm. The result is a design with high D-efficiency, given the constraints. 2b1af7f3a8