Dr. Wich et al. studied the propagation of small fluctuations from the macro-scale to the meso-scale. In this work, we extend their macro-scale model to study the meso-scale fluctuations. By allowing for a prescribed pattern of hydraulic conductivity, we obtain a simple meso-scale model of the hydraulic response to gradients in hydraulic conductivity. Our model is applied to a heterogeneous aquifer, and the results are compared to the results of the homogeneous model. In the heterogeneous case, deviations from the homogeneous model are more pronounced for higher frequencies and smaller spatial scales. The model is also used to investigate the effects of adding a local perturbation to the uniform hydraulic conductivity profile. The difference between the linear and nonlinear responses is more pronounced if the perturbation is small compared to the macro-scale perturbation.
Dr. S. Secken, who has worked on the Nordic LPS since 2005, reports on recent work on low resolution dynamic topography at high flow rates and flood thresholds. Recent work on dynamic topography models has been performed at the Norwegian Centre for Remote Sensing. His work focuses on the use of the ETOPO1 dataset of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. The grid resolution of the ETOPO1 grid is so high that the grid spacing can not be resolved for a good estimate of the topographical complexity. The vertical resolution of the ETOPO1 grid is assumed constant and equal to the average altitude of the grid. The various features of the resulting surface can be estimated, but the resolution is too low to resolve the topographical complexity and detailed differences between the various surfaces. His work has explored the use of DEMs (digital elevation models) which are available for many countries. Using a 3-D surface of an undisturbed area (e.g. a river reach) as a base to which minor perturbations will be added, the changes of the surface can be studied. The perturbations are added as elevation layers with a spatial resolution smaller than the grid resolution. In this way, the topography can be estimated for a range of different resolutions.
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