Some types of cardiomyopathy are more likely in some people than in others. For example, dilated cardiomyopathy is more common in Black people. Dilated and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy are more likely in males.
Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a progressive deterioration of liver functions for more than six months, which includes synthesis of clotting factors, other proteins, detoxification of harmful products of metabolism, and excretion of bile. CLD is a continuous process of inflammation, destruction, and regeneration of liver parenchyma, which leads to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The spectrum of etiologies is broad for chronic liver disease, which includes toxins, alcohol abuse for a prolonged time, infection, autoimmune diseases, genetic and metabolic disorders. Cirrhosis is a final stage of chronic liver disease that results in disruption of liver architecture, the formation of widespread nodules, vascular reorganization, neo-angiogenesis, and deposition of an extracellular matrix. The underlying mechanism of fibrosis and cirrhosis at a cellular level is the recruitment of stellate cells and fibroblasts, resulting in fibrosis, while parenchymal regeneration relies on hepatic stem cells. Chronic liver disease is an extremely common clinical condition, and the focus is done on the common etiologies, clinical manifestations, and management.
Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D infections are the most common causes of chronic liver disease in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. There are various genotypes of hepatitis C. In Europe and North America, genotype 1a and 1b are more prevalent, while in Southeast Asia, genotype 3 is more common. A molecular epidemiological study revealed a high prevalence of HCV genotype 4, subtype 4a among Egyptian patients living in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. Chronic hepatitis C, if not treated, may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare disease in which there is the destruction of liver parenchyma by autoantibodies. Most of the patients who present with this disease have already developed cirrhosis. Females are more commonly affected than males.
Hepatic fibrosis is the deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in response to chronic liver injury by any etiology. The common pathway is initiated by hepatic stellate cells (HSC), which usually are vitamin A storing dormant cells found in space between sinusoids and hepatocytes. In response to chronic liver injury, HSC gets activated into proliferative fibrogenic myofibroblast and upregulates the expression of inflammatory receptors such as chemokine receptors, ICAM-1, and other inflammatory mediators by releasing chemokines and other leukocyte chemoattractants. This pro-inflammatory phase or initiation phase also changes gene and phenotypic expression of the liver cells, making them more responsive to these inflammatory cytokines, and perpetuation of activated HSC cells results in the accumulation of ECM and progressive fibrosis.
Portal hypertension is a result of resistance to portal blood flow because of cirrhotic and noncirrhotic etiology. A portal venous pressure above seven mmHg is considered portal hypertension; however, clinical features or complications do not develop until portal pressure is higher than 12 mmHg. Portal hypertension causes can divide into prehepatic (e.g., portal vein thrombosis), hepatic (e.g., cirrhosis), and post hepatic (e.g., Budd Chiari syndrome). Cirrhosis and hepatic schistosomiasis remain the most common cause of portal hypertension, with cirrhosis being more common in developed countries. The following are the consequences of long-standing portal hypertension.
Anyone can develop epilepsy, but it most commonly onsets in young children and older adults. According to research published in 2021, men develop epilepsy more often than women, possibly because of higher exposure to risk factors like alcohol use and head trauma.
The most common surgery is resection. This involves removing the part of your brain where the seizures start. Most often, the temporal lobe is removed in a procedure known as temporal lobectomy. In some cases, this can stop seizure activity.
Director General of Police Amaresh Pujari, who heads the Cyber Crime Wing of Tamil Nadu Police, in an interview with The Hindu cautioned people not to download loan apps from unverified websites to avoid falling prey to fraudsters. He also elaborated on the emerging trends in cyber frauds and helplines for victims. Excerpts:
A / Whenever such loan apps come to our notice, we take up the matter with the app provider to take it down. This year, we came across273 loan apps on Google Play Store. After sustained follow-up by the Cyber Crime Wing, Google has taken down 211 apps. Efforts are being made to bring down the remaining 62 apps. The problem, however, is compounded by the fact that people download such loan apps from various websites too. I would strongly urge people not to download any app from unverified websites as it can contaminate their mobile phones and lead to loss of money.
A / One of the quickest redressal mechanisms for a common man who loses money to fraudsters is to dial our toll-free helpline number 1930. This number is handled by our trained staff, working round-the-clock at our dedicated control room in the Cyber Crime Wing Headquarters. The staff will get the necessary details from the victim and initiate freezing of the fraudulent transaction so that money could be returned to the victim by the bank. The earlier the people report the incident to the helpline, the more are the chances of them getting back their money. 2b1af7f3a8